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Medications and Treatments:

PARASITES AND METHODS OF CONTROLLING THEM:

ARGULUS or FISH LOUSE.

This parasite and its eggs are commonly introduced by Frogs and Toads. It is easy to detect, especially on the fins or light coloured areas of the Koi as this shows up clearly.

The size of this parasite vary between 1mm to 5mm in the adults, and is one of those that can be seen with the Naked Eye.  They are greenish brown and they attach themselves to the Koi by the suckers they use to hold onto the body of the Koi - they also inject a poison into the Koi which causes inflammation and possibly bleeding from the wound.

Argulus

Method 1:- Masoten Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton (220 gallons) of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket or similar (not metal) making sure that all the powder is dissolved and when the water is clear and a beautiful pale blue (like aquamarine) pour the solution round the edge of your pond - if you cannot get right round your pond then pour where there is a good flow of water which will disperse the medication quickly into all areas of the pond.

Method 2:- Masoten Liquid at the rate of 5ml per ton (220 galls) of pond water, mix and disperse as above.

A second dose should be administered 10 days later at temperatures between 48 and 58 degrees, but if the water temperature is above 58 degrees then this should be brought forward to 7 days.

Dimlin Powder can also be used to eradicate this parasite very successfully ...

Please note that before using Masoten, any Goldfish, Orfe or similar pond fish should be removed from the pond being treated if possible.
 
LEECHES

Leeches

Although uncommon in specially built Koi ponds they are usually visible and look like a small flat worm between 5mm and 20mm long. They are brownish red in colour and again these attach themselves to the Koi by their suckers.

To eradicate both of these parasites quickly, with the water temperature be above 48 degrees, use Masoten which is an organophosphate-based drug produced especially to combat some of the Water-borne parasites - it is made in Japan and it may be available from a good Koi Dealer, although it is now becoming harder to obtain supplies.

Method 1:- Masoten Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton (220 gallons) of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket or similar (not metal) making sure that all the powder is dissolved and when the water is clear and a beautiful pale blue (like aquamarine) pour the solution round the edge of your pond - if you cannot get right round your pond then pour where there is a good flow of water which will disperse the medication quickly into all areas of the pond.

NOTE:  Masoten is extremely hard to obtain.

Method 2:- Masoten Liquid at the rate of 5ml per ton (220 galls) of pond water, mix and disperse as above.

A second dose should be administered 10 days later at temperatures between 48 and 58 degrees, but if the water temperature is above 58 degrees then this should be brought forward to 7 days.

Please note that before using Masoten, any Goldfish, Orfe or similar pond fish should be removed from the pond being treated if possible.

LERNEA or ANCHOR WORM:

This parasite can be very troublesome if left unchecked, with the adults reaching 12 mm in length - it is grayish white in colour and attaches itself to the Koi by using hooks, or anchors as the name applies, boring into the skin tissue by first getting under a scale. Only the tail of the anchor worm is visible and looks like a short length of cotton. Anchor Worm needs treating quickly before a secondary infection.

Anchor Worm

Method of Eradication:-

The only known method of killing this parasite, without killing the Koi is DIMLIN POWDER which can be used safely at any water temperature and has an action of sterilizing the adult and larval stages of this parasite which insures that all eggs produced, after the application of Dimlin, will not hatch.

Method:-   Dimlin Powder at the rate of 1 gram per ton of pond water. Measure out the quantity required and mix in a plastic bucket with pond water ensuring that the powder is dissolved then add to the pond in the previous manner. A second dosage may be needed to ensure that the life cycle of the Anchor Worm has been halted. After this second application the dead adults, which will still be hanging from the Koi, can be removed using tweezers but making sure that the hooks, as well as the tail of the Anchor Worm are removed and then apply a proprietary Topical dressing to prevent a secondary infection.

Removing Anchor Worm

 

 

 


 

There is another way of removing Anchor Worm but more care has to be taken to remove all parts of the Anchor Worm ... that method is.... mix a strong solution of Potassium Permanganate crystals of 1 gram into 25 mls of hot water.  Mix well until dissolved and then dip the tweezers into this solution prior to the removal of the Anchor Worm, once the solution touches the body the Anchor Worm releases its grip immediately and it can then be lifted clear of the Koi and the water, wipe the end of the tweezers on a clean tissue to remove all traces before attempting to remove another Anchor Worm.

TRICHODINA (Cyclochaeta)

Another protozoan parasite, this one resembles a flying saucer in shape and behaviour, spinning and dancing as it does it is very easy to identify using a microscope with a 100  x or greater .. this parasite is normally found when water temperatures are high and causes excessive mucus secretion and blemishes on the skin and gill surfaces - this parasite affects the respiration which eventually weakens the koi.

Method of Eradication:- Potassium Permanganate Crystals.

Method: Measure Potassium Permangante crystals at the rate of 1.5 grams per ton (220 gallons) of water. Mix in a clean plastic bucket with water close to the boiling point and pour over the crystals, ensuring that all the crystals are dissolved - then leave this to stand for at least 30 minutes until the water cools down. Before application stir thoroughly once more and then pour the solution round the perimeter of the pond - this will turn the water a violet colour but after a few hours will begin to clear.

A second doseage may be required if the water temperature is above 68 degrees F, after 7 days.

Probably the most common of the Parasites that invade our Koi are:-

GYRODACTYLUS (Skin fluke) and the DACTYLOGYRUS (Gill fluke)

Flukes cause Ulcer Disease. Other parasites can transmit and cause ulcerations, but none so effectively as the pathogenic trematode, or FLUKE.

Assume that if you're treating bacterial infections, you also have concurrent infection with Flukes. The flukes are easy to diagnose with a microscope.

However, they are also easy to treat using Malachite Green and Formalin  or Potassium permanganate is also excellent and used at the rate of 1.5 grams per ton (220 Gallons) - but it is even more important to ensure good volumes of water changes after using this medication.

CHILONONELLA:

Chilodonella - this is the one parasite that kills so many fish so fast in the Springtime.

Chilodinella is one of the hottest fish killers there is. Under the scope you may see a heartshaped organism, or a large round organism full of tiny bubbles. Alive, the Chilodinella resembles a heart shaped onion, with a fuzzy end where you could imagine the onions roots would be. These are actually cilia. Dead, Chilodinella are motionless round balls full of tiny bubbles. They may resemble Ich but they do not have a crescent nucleus nor do they move in their dead, rounded state.
Chilodinella clears EASILY with salt. Leave the salt in for 14 days, and be sure to supplement aeration, as gill damage d/t Chilodinella may be severe in the survivors. Chilodinella should be suspected anytime large numbers of fish are dying on the surface, or who roll over on their sides except when disturbed, the Koi dash madly.

Method of Erradication:

Treats easily with salt at the doseage rate of 3/4 ounce per gallon (0.75 percent).
Clears almost overnight, so immediate salting can save a lot of fish.

COSTIA:  (Also known as Ichthyobodo Necatrix)

A High Magnification of up to 400 x must be used to see and identify this particular parasite which is one of the smallest of all the parasites, but one that can also, because of its size and can go undetected, play real havoc with your Koi and is most certainly a killer if undetected ..

Costia is responsible for a lot of the recent fish mortalities we've seen after Japanese style shows.
There are several reasons for this, which are worth discussion here.

  1. Costia resists drying. Empty tanks, nets, even dried nets and hoses, can transmit infective Costia from one group of fish to another. Folks are not very cautious about nets and bowls. A retail facility that does not rinse or disinfect their nets and bowls between tanks is capable of infecting every fish they sell, whether they originate in infected tanks or not.
  2. Costia is not always evenly distributed among fish populations or even upon an individual fish. What we are saying is that you may have a collection of fish in which only a small percentage of fish will have Costia. Numerous biopsies of some healthy looking fish are negative while the affected fish swarm with Costia. An immune capability is suspected among those fish that do not show morbidity under Costial attack. Secondly, the Costia may exist in small "patches" on skin and gill and be missed in routine scrapes. It is imperative that whenever you're biopsying a fish, you biopsy general locations such as between the gill covers and the pectoral fins. But that you also biopsy any red or white patches upon the fish.
  3. Costia is easily missed under routine microscopy. There is an important reason why. For a definitive diagnosis, a microscope should be able to perform a competent 200X scanning power. 400X is sometimes important to diagnose Costia when numbers of organisms are low. Many of the new Chinese microscopes are labeled with 40X optics and 10X oculars but despite the listed caliber, are nevertheless poor at imaging at that power. So you often see nothing.
  4. Leaving the iris diaphragm open on your microscope defeats the necessary contrast to diagnose Costia. You should use the lowest power light and the smallest aperture on your iris diaphragm. For more on this, refer to the book or the web page for a diagram of these important microscope parts.

Please do not mess about with this particular parasite .. watch for the signs and do frequent scrapes using a good quality microscope at 400 x magnification.

Method of Eradication:

Initially you can try salt - this has been quite successful providing the strain of Costia infection you have is not immune to salt treatment ..  treat at 0.5 percent (half ounce per gallon) and this rate of doseage can be increased to 0.75 percent.

Failing the Salt treatment and if Costial infection is still present, then Potassium Permangante as a dip is the only real solution to the problem ..  at the rate of 1 gram per 5 ltrs of water for 3 minutes ..

You may need to retreat in the same manner for 3 consecutive days .. but please take another scrape and examine under the 400 x magnification prior to the additional dip treatments ..

This subject will be continued as time allows:


Be Sure to see the New Non Chemical Treatments - Parazoryne and Sabbactisun - these products are totally New and truly amazing products:


ERK Ltd
 

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